Monday, December 19, 2005


Interlingua es un lingua natural e musical de parolas international
e un grammatica minimal.
Es comprensibile facilemente per personas intelligente
e es un medio de communication adequate
pro le solution del confusion linguistic international.

Lection un, le prime lection:

Qualque parolas (some words):
a = to, on
de = of, from
e = and
es = am, is, are
ha = have, has
ille = he
in = in
io = I
le = definite article (the)
pro = for
qui = who, whom
un = indefinite article (a, an)
vos = you (plural)

Qualque adjectivos : international, social, civil, economic, popular, communal.
Qualque verbos (in infinitive): interessar, includer, occupar, conversar, servir, confrontar.
Qualque substantivos: organisation, union, region, proffesor, garage, piano, film, hotel.
(Substantivos = nouns)

Le alphabeto e le pronunciation:
The alphabet is the same as in English. Many try to pronounce as nearly as possible to the Spanish or Italian. But, since Interlingua is meant to be an international language, there must be a certain tolerance for variation.
The accentuation in interlingua coincides in priciple with the national languages:
There are three categories:
One: In general the accentuation is on the vowel prceeding the ultimate consonant: infe`rno, uni`r.
Two: Words ending in –le, -ne, -re precided by a vowel has the accentuation on the antepenultime syllable : fra`gile , o`rdine.
Three: Words with suffix –ic, -ide, -ulo, -ico, -ica, -ido, -ula have the accentuation on the preceeding vowel: po`pulo, scienti`fic, ni`tide.
The letters have a well defined pronounciation in Interlingua:
a as in father
b as in boat
c before e,i,y is pronounced either as ts or as s.
c before a consonant or a, o, u, is pronounced as k in English key.
ch may be as in English chrome, or shame, or chocolate.
d as in English dull.
e as in English they an met.
f as in English fall.
g as in English great. But in endings like –age in bagage like the English sabotage.
h as in English hat.
i as in English machine.
j as dsj as in English journal or like in French jornal.
k as in English kilo.
l as in English long.
m as in English man.
n as in English now.
o as in English north.
p as in English pie.
q as k in English king.
qu as in English question.
r as in English row (a rolling r as the Scots do).
s as in English so.
t as in English time.
u as in English flute.
v as in English vase.
x as in English six.
y as in English i in machine and before vowels like yoghurt.
z as in English haze.
Qualque parolas = some words
un = one
mi = my
su = his, her, its
lor = their
casa = house
lingua = language
mercato = market
pace = peace
pais = country, land
vita = life
es = am, are, is
ha = have
commun = common
differente = different
satisfactori = satisactory
contente = content

Have only one form and never change. It is normally placed after the noun it describes.
Le situation economic = The economic situation.
Le parlamento europee = The European parliament.
Un region interessante = An interesting region.

Substantivos (Nouns):
End in –s in plural, and in –es where the word ends with a consonant.
Le differensias principal = The principal differences.
Interpretationes differente = Different interpretations.
Le paises europee = The European countries.

Traduce (translata) a anglese = Translate into English:
Interlingua es un lingua international, pro personas de nationalitates differente.
Interlingua is an international language for persons from different nationalities.

Italia e Espania es paises in Europa.

Le Consilio de Europa consiste de multe paises.

Le Communitate Europee es un union politic, economic e commercial.

60% de le budget administrative in le Parlamento Europee es pro translation e Interpretation.

Lection duo, le secunde lection:

Qualque pronomines (pronouns):
io = I
me = me
tu = you (singular)
vos = you (plural)
isto = this (of things)
illo = that (of things)

Qualque substantivos / articulos definite e indefinite:
un puero = a boy
le puero = the boy
un puera = a girl
le puera = the girl
pueros = boys
le pueros = the boys

Qualque verbos (tempore presente = present tense):
da = give, gives
dice [ditse] = say
face [fatse] = do and make
incontra = meet
monstra = show
obtene = obtain, get
pote = can, may
va = go, walk
vole = will, want

Altere parolas (other words):
no = no
non = not
si = yes and if

Qualque prepositiones:
a = to, towards
(a le = al)
de = of, from
(de le = del)
in = in, into
pro = for
per = by
inter = among, between

Qualque parolas pro questiones e pro responsas:
Pro questiones:
quando [kuando] = when?
quanto [kuanto] = how much?
que [ke] = what?
ubi [obi] = where?

Pro responsas:
hic [hik] = here
illac [illak] = there
nunc [nonk] = now
plus tarde = later

Salutes &c:
bon die = good day (good morning, may be used the whole day)
per favor = please!
gratias [gratsias] = thanks
excusa me = excuse me, pardon me.
The adjective usually follows the noun: Un organisation international.
But a few short adjectives preceed the noun: Bon die.

Lege e translata (Read and translate):
The following is a difficult text in most languages, so if you understand it you have done a good job.
Le Communitate Europee es unic inter organisationes international.
Le objectivos de su statos-membros include:
Promotion del union del populos de Europa.
Melioration constante del conditiones de vita e travalio.
Expansion economic inter le regiones.
Assistentia pro paises developpante.
Preservation e consolidation del pace e del libertate.Le communitate es administrate e controllate per le institutiones commun:Parlamento, Concilio de ministros, Commision, Corte de justicia e Corte de revisores.

Lection tres, le tertie lection:

Qualque parolas:
io = I
tu = you (singular)
ille = he
illa = she
illo = it
on = one
nos = we
vos = you (plural)
illes = they (masculine and for groups containing both sexes)
illas = they (feminine)
illos = de (neutral)
vos = You (singular, polite form)
In many foreign countries a polite form is used).

Qualque verbos (tempore presente):
io veni = I come
tu veni = you (sing.) come
ille, illa, illo veni = he, she, it comes
nos veni = we come
vos veni = you (plural) come
illes, illas, illos veni = they (masc., fem., neut.) come
The verb is the same, irrespective of person, gender, number.
In English we have the infinitive article to (to come). But such is not used in Interlingua.
The infinitive of the verb ends in –r as follows:
Present: entra, vide, aperi = enter, see, open
Infinitive: entrar, vider, aperir = to enter, to see, to come in
Note that the ending of the vowel in the present tense is carried ove into the finite tense.
But the accentuation changes position from the present to the finite.

Tres exeptiones (Three exceptions):
Three verbs, that are frequently used, have a different transition from the present to the infinitive:
Present: es, ha, va = is, have, go
Infinitive: esser, haber, vader = to be, to have, to go

Phrases polite = Polite phrases:
Bon die! Como sta vos? = Good morning (Good day)! How are you?
Multo ben, gratias = Very well, thank you.
A revider = Good bye (until we meet again)
Per favor = Please
Multe gratias = Thank you very much
Pardona me! Excusa me! = Pardon me! Excuse me!
Repete, per favor! = Please repeat!
e, ma = and, but
si, no = yes, no
naturalmente = of course, naturally
nonne? = you agree? (eh?)
senior, seniora, senioretta = mr., mrs., miss

Lege e translata (Read and translate):
I = Interviewer, (The person who asks)
V = Victima, (Victim) (The person who answers)
I: Entra, per favor! Bon die! Como sta vos senior Berg?
V: Bon die! Io sta multo ben, gratias. Ma pardona me, mi nomine non es Berg.
I: Oh, excusa me! Vos es senior Johnson?
V: Si, Johnson es mi nomine.
I: Naturalmente. Vos veni de Nottingham? Nonne?
V: No, io non veni de Nottingham. Io veni de York.
I: Ah, si. Senior Johnson de York. Vostre interview non es con me, ma con seniora Smith.
V: Pardona me, per favor. A revider!
I: A revider!

Lection quatro, le quarte lection:

Questions may be formed in several ways. You may:
Raise your voice in the end of the sentence: Tu va a London?
Use sentences with esque [pronounced: eske] ( is it that..?): Esque tu va a London?
Reverse the order of words: Va tu a London?

Infinitive and present tense:
Infinitive: parlar = to speak, dicer = to say, audir = to hear
Present tense: parla, dice [ditse], audi
The root of the word is the present tense: parla, dice, audi

The imperative is allways as the present tense:
Pardona me! = Pardon me!
Entra, per favor! = Enter, please!
Non parla! = Don`t talk!

Verbos in infinitive pote sequer altere verbos.
Verbs in infinitive may follow other verbs.
Ille desira pardonar vos = She wants to pardon you
Nos intende interceder = We intend to intercede
Mi soror va venir hodie = My sister will come today

Preteritum (past tense) is formed by adding –va to the present tense:
Maria entrava con me = Maria came in with me
Tu solveva la problema = You solved the problem
Illa veniva pro su parapluvia = She came for her umbrella

Le familia:
parente, parentes, patre, matre = relative, parent, father, mother
fratre, soror = brother, sister
filio, filia = son, daughter
marito, marita = husband, wife
infante, puero, puera = child (infant), boy, girl
homine, femina, familia = human being / man, woman, family

Parolas pro questiones:
qui? que? ubi? = who / whom? what? where?
como? quando? = how? when?
quanto? quante? = how much? how many?
qual? proque? = which? why?

Lege e translata:
Conversasion per telephono:
Senior Bloom: = SB:
Seniora Glad: = SG:
SB: Hallo! Familia Bloom. Ed Bloom parla.
SG: Hallo! Excusa me, senior Bloom! Isto es Vera Glad, qui parla. Io desira parlar con Mary, vostre marita. Esque illa es in casa?
SB: Bon die! Io regretta, ma mi marita non es in casa pro le momento.
SG: Quando va illa revenir?
SB: Io non sape exactemente. Ma io crede que illa va retornar a casa intra un hora. Illa visita su matre, qui es in le hospital.
SG: Su matre es in hospital? Io regretta multo. Bon. Pote illa telephonar me, quando illa retorna?
SB: Pote io dar un message a mi marita pro vos?
SG: No, gratias. Pote vos mentionar mi nomine?
SB: Naturalmente. Ma, pardona me: pote vos repeter vostre nomine? Io non audiva ben al causa del television.
SG: Si, naturalmente. Mi nomine es Vera Glad. Multe gratias. A revider.
SB: Bon, seniora Glad. A revider. Un momento! Illa justo arriva.

Lection cinque, le quinte lection:

Pronomines personal:
Subjekt pronouns:
io = I
tu = you (singular)
ille = he, illa = she, illo = it
on = one
nos = we
vos = you (plural) / you (singular, polite)
illes = they (mask), illas = they (fem), illos = they (neut)
(A group of persons of both sexes is described as illes)

Object pronouns:
me = me
te = you
le = him, la = her, lo = it
uno = one
nos = us
vos = you (plural) / you (singular, polite)
les = them (m), las = them (f), los = them (n)
(A group of persons of both sexes is described as les)

After preposition:
me = me
te = you
ille = him, illa = her, illo = it
uno = one
nos = us
vos = you (plural) / you (singular, polite)
illes = them (m), illas = them (f), illos = them (n)
(A group of persons of both sexes is described as les)

mi = my
tu = your
su = his, her, its
su = ones
nostre = our
vostre = your (plural) / your (singular polite form)
lor = their (m + f + n)

Subject: Io scribe un littera = I write a letter
Object: Io la scribe = I write to her (I write her)

After preposition: Io lo scribe a illa = I write it to her

Genitive: Illa es mi marita = She is my wife

Tempores del verbos:
Infinitive: ends with -r : adjutar = to help
Present tense: no ending: adjuta = help
Imperative: no ending: adjuta! =help!
Preteritum (past tense): ends with –va: adjutava = helped
Fututure perfect tense: ends with –ra: adjutara = shall / will help
Futurure perfect tense: va and ending –r: va adjutar = will/shall soon help
Conditional tense: ends with –rea: adjutarea = should/would help
Perfect tense: ha and ending –te: ha adjutate = has helped
Pluperfect tense: habeva and ending –te: habeva adjutate = hadde hjulpet
Condiional perfect tense: haberea ajutate = should/would have helped
Participles: The present participle is formed by replacing the infinitive
–ar vith –ante Ex: parlante = speaking
-er with –ente Ex: bibente = drinking
–ir with –iente Ex: audiente = hearing
The present participle is never used as part of a compound verb. Thus:
I am going = Io va.
I have been doing = Io faceva
I shall be speaking = Io parlara

"Es le restaurante expensive?" demanda le seniora =
"Is the restaurant expensive?" the lady asks.

Apporta me le bira, per favor! =
Bring me the beer, please!

Ille nos conduceva a nostre tabula =
He took (conducted) us to our table

Illes celebrara lor anniversario =
They shall celebrate their anniversary.

Illa haberea un omelette e un vitro de vino =
She would (like to) have an omelette an a glas of wine.

Numeros e (ordinales):
1 = un e (prime)
2 = duo e (secunde)
3 = tres e (tertie)
4 = quatro e (quarte)
5 = cinque e (quinte)
6 = sex e (sexte)
7 = septe e (septime)
8 = octo e (octave)
9 = novem e (none)
10 = dece e (decime)
11 = dece-un e (dece-prime)
12 = dece-duo e (dece-secunde)
20 = vinti e (vintesime)
21 = vinti-un e (vinti-prime)
30 = trenta e (trentesime)
40 = quaranta e (quarantesime)
50 = cinquanta e (cinquantesime)
60 = sexanta e (sexantesime)
70 = septanta e (septantesime)
80 = otanta e (octantesime)
90 = novanta e (novantesime
100 = cento e (centesime)
200 = duo centos e (duocentesime)
1000 = mille e (millesime)
2000 = duo milles e (duomillesime)
10 000 = dece milles e (decemillesime)
1 000 000 = un million e (millionesime)
2 000 000 = duo milliones e (duomillionesime)
1988 (anno) = dece novem octante octo
1988 (anno) = un mille novemcentos octante octo

Lege e translata:
Celebration del anniversario.
"Como le restaurante es bon!" exclama seniora Bloom.
"Como le restaurante es expensive!" declarava senior Bloom. "Ma solmente un restaurante de prime classe pro nostre anniversario."
Un servitor les conduceva a lor tabula e dava le menu a senior e seniora Bloom. Post dece minutas le servitor veniva a lor tabula e demandava: "Con que pote io servir vos, senior?"
"Un momento, per favor! Mi marita volerea haber le suppa del die, un omelette e como dessert le yoghurt. E pro me, io habera le suppa del die, ma io prefererea le beefsteak con patatas."
"Gratias senior. E como dessert?" demandava le servitor.
"Como dessert io habera le gelato de chocolate."
"Certemente, senior. E que desira vos biber – aqua mineral, limonada. Bira, vino?"
"Oh, no! Champagne – nos celebra nostre anniversario!"
Quando le servitor apportava le champagne, senior e seniora Bloom levava lor vitros e toastava lor anniversario."

Lection sex, le sexte lection:

Dies e menses:
secunda, minuta, hora = second, minute, hour
die, septimana, mense, anno = day, week, month,year
matino, mediedie / meridie = morning, mid-day/noon
postmeridie, vespere = afternoon, evening
nocte, medienocte = night, midnight
heri, hodie, deman = yesterday, today, tomorrow
dominica, lunedi, martedi = Sunday, Monday, Tuesday
mercuridi, jovedi, venerdi = Wednesday, Thursday, Friday
sabbato, week-end = Saturday/sabbath, week-end
januario, februario, martio = January, February, March
april, maio, junio, julio = April, May, June, July
augusto, septembre, octobre = August, Septeber, Oktober
novembre, decembre = November, December
Note that the rule is not always followed here that the accentuation should be on the vowel preceeding the final consonant.

Qual hora es il?
Que / qual hora es il? = What time is it?
Il es un hora e cinque (minutas) = It is five minutes past one.
Il es duo horas e quarte = It is a quarter past two.
Il es tres horas e medie = It is half past three.
Il es quatro horas minus dece = It is four to ten.
Il es mediedie / medienocte = It is noon (midday) / midnight.
Dece-tres horas trenta-septe = 13:37 = 1:37 p.m.

Quante annos ha tu?
Quante annos ha tu? = How old are you? (How many years have you?)
Que etate ha tu? = What is your age? (What age have you?)
Io ha trenta annos = I m thirty years old. (I have thirty years)
Ille nasceva ante vinti annos = He was born 20 years ago.

Repastos = meals:
jentaculo = breakfast
jentar = to eat breakfast
lunch = lunch
lunchar = to eat lunch
prandio = dinner
prander = to dine (at noon time)
dinar = dinner
dinar = to eat dinner (later in the day)
cena = evening meal
cenar = to eat evening meal

Expressions with ha:
Il ha = There is (there excists)
Tu ha torto = You are wrong
Io ha sete = I am thirsty
Ha tu fame? = Are you hungry?
Un session ha loco = A session finds place
Mi marita ha frigido = My wife feels cold
Tu fratre ha pressa = Your brother is busy
Note that ha (have) i many cases is used differently than in English.

Expressions with il:
Il ha un banca hic = There is a bank here
Il ha vinti quatro horas in un die = There are 24 hours in a day
Il es un hora = It is one o`clock
Il es ver que mi filia veni = It is true that my daughter comes
Il face belle tempore = The weather is nice. (It makes nice weather)
Il pluve = It is raining
Il me place dansar = I like to dance. (It me pleases to dance)
Si il vos place = If you please. (if it you (polite) pleases)
"il" is an indefinite pronoun. The English "there is" has the same function as "il ha".

Come and go:
Ille entra in le casa = He enters (into) the house
Nos sorti del banca = We leave the bank

Lege e translata:
Heri io prendeva mi jentaculo a septe horas e medie. Io habeva cornflaces con un tassa (cup) de the. Io sortiva del casa a octo horas minus un quarto. E io arrivava al bureau (office, pronounced as the French [byro]) a novem horas minus vinti minutas.
In le pausa del mediedie io vadeva al stadio, ubi un match de football (pronounced like English match) habeva loco. Io arrivava illac a un hora minus dece. Ma a duo horas minus vinti-cinque io debeva sortir del stadio pro commenciar al bureau a duo horas exactemente.
Io finiva al bureau a cinque horas e un quarto e retornava a casa a sex horas e dece del vespere.
Tunk (then) io vadeva al restaurante a octo horas. Mi die finiva (ended) a dece-un horas e vinti, quando io habeva un tassa (cup) de chocolate.

Lection septe, le septime lection:

a = to, at
ab = from
ante = before, in front of
apud = near, by
circa = around
con = with
concernente = about, concerning
contra = against, contra
de = of, from, to
desde = since, from
detra = behind
durante = during
ex = out of, from
extra = outside
in = in, into
inter = between, among
per = by means of, by (by Peter Smith), through, of
post = after, behind
pro = for, to
secundo = according to, second
sin = without
sub = under
super = on, over
trans = accross
usque = until

Secundo illa, interlingua es facile = According to her, Interlingua is easy.
Le jornal es super le tabula = The newspaper is on the table.
Parca le auto ante le banca = Park the car in front of the bank.
Isto es pro ille = This is for him.

Expressiones con numeros:
Ante dece menses = Ten months ago.
Desde cinque annos = For five years.
Io apprende espaniol desde duo annos =
I have learned (studied) Spanish for two years. (I learn Spanish since two years)

This and that:
Iste puero e ille can = This boy and that dog.
Iste feminas e ille homines = These women and those men.
Iste pais es libere = This country is free.
Ille libros es nove = Those books are new.

Nota: (Note:)
This and that are pronouns pointing to something definite and are pronounced with emphasis.
This refers to something near and is in Interlingua iste.
That refers to somehing further away and is in Interlingua ille.
When ille and iste refer directly to a noun, they are not inflected in Interlingua.
Remember that ille also means he.

Perfectum participe e altere formas:
Do, make / face / facite / un carga facite / a completed task
approve / approba / approbate / un plano approbate / an approved plan
open / aperi / aperite / un littera aperite / an opened letter

Note: e in face and in all so called e-verbs changes to i.

Ha legite – haberea legite:
ha / legite / has read / Qui ha solvite le problema?
habeva / legite / had read / Ille habeva legite la littera
habera / legite / shall or will have read / Ille habera legite lo intra un hora
haberea / legite / should or would have read / On haberea absolvite le criminal

es / parcate / is parked / Le auto es parcate ante le banca
esseva / absolve / was absolved / Le criminal esseva absolvite per le corte

Lection octo, le octave lection:

I wash (me). – They shave (themselves).

Io me lava = I wash
Tu te ducha = You take a shower. (You shower yourself)
Ille se sede = He seats himself. He sits down.
Illa se interessa = She interests herself. She is interested.
Illo se promena = It goes for a walk.(It promenades itself)
On se demanda = One asks onself
Nos nos vesti = We dress (ouselves).
Vos vos bania = You take a bath. (You yourself bathe)
Illes se rasa = They shave (themselves).
Illas se pectina = They comb their hair. (They themselves comb)
Illos se leva = They get up / rise up. (They themselves lift)
Note: In expressions like the above io-me, tu-te &c. are always placed before the verb.

Adjectivos e (adverbios):
natural e (naturalmente)
exacte e (exactemente)
practic e (practicamente)
Le cantatrica es belle e (illa canta bellemente)
The singer (f) is beautiful and (she sings beautifully)
Un arrestation immediate e (Le criminal esseva arrestate immediatemente).
An immediate arrest and (The criminal was immediately arrested).
When the adjective ends in a consonant, the adverb ends in –amente.
(Naturalmente is an exception. It is easy to pronounce without adding an –a)
In the other cases the adverb ends in -mente.

Comparative and superlative of adjectives and adverbs:
belle-plus belle- le plus belle = beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful
facile-plus facile-le plus facile = easy-eaier-easiest


bellemente-plus bellemente -le plus bellemente =
beautifully-more beautifully-most beautifully

facilemente -plus facilemente -le plus facilemente =
easily – more easily – most easily


Interlingua es plus facile que espaniol = Interlingua is easier (to learn) than Spanish.
On le apprende plus facilemente que espaniol = One learns it more easily than Spanish.

To know:
Saper: we use about something we know.
"Sape tu ubi illo es?" (Do you know where it is?)
Poter: (to be allowed to, to manage, to be capable of)
"Pote io dar un message?" (May I leave a message?)

Cognoscer: (to recognise, to know)
"Como ben cognosce tu Paris?" (How well do you know Paris?)

Adjectivos que termina in –nte:
Many adjectives are frmed by adding the ending –nte to the present tense of the verb.
When the verb ends in an i the ending will be –ente.
interessa = interest (verb) / interessante = interesting
vive = lives (v) / vivente = living
audi = heas (v) / audiente = hearing

Exemplo: Un film interessante. Un ave (bird) vivente.

To be:
Case: common case / alternative cases / English
Infinitive: esser / esser / be
Present singular: es / esse / is
Present plural: es / esse – son / are
Imperativ: sia! / esse! / be!
Preteritum (Past): esseva / era / was
Future: essera / sera / will be
Conditional: esserea / serea / would be

Iste curso es adaptate i.a. del curso per Peter Gopsill
e le traduction norvegian de Ole Øiseth.
Le adaption e additiones es
per Åsmund Knutson, presidente de NIU.


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